CALL US: 206.533.3854
CALL US  206.533.3854
AEON Law logo full color transparent

The “Ordinary Observer” Test and Design Patents

Patents for designs
Must be associated
With physical things

clip_image002Unlike utility patents, which cover new or improved — and useful — products, processes, or machines, design patents cover only cosmetic, non-functional elements of an object.

In Curver Luxembourg SARL v. Home Expressions, Inc., the Federal Circuit dealt with an “ornamental design for a pattern for a chair,” as shown above.

The patent holder alleged that the design patent was infringed by a similar plastic basket.

The company that sold the baskets, Home Expressions, argued that the baskets couldn’t infringe the design patent because the patent was limited to chairs only.

The Federal Circuit agreed with Home Expressions.

As the court explained,

To determine whether the complaint stated a plausible infringement claim, the district court conducted a two-step analysis. First, it construed the scope of the design patent. Second, it compared the accused products to the claimed design as construed to determine whether the products infringed. Under the “ordinary observer” test, an accused product infringes a design patent if “in the eye of an ordinary observer . . . two designs are substantially the same,” such that “the resemblance is such as to deceive such an observer, inducing him to purchase one supposing it to be the other . . . .”

The court noted that the district court

construed the scope of the … patent to be limited to the design pattern illustrated in the patent figures as applied to a chair, explaining that “[t]he scope of a design patent is limited to the ‘article of manufacture’— i.e., the product—listed in the patent.”

The district court found that no “ordinary observer” would buy a Home Expressions basket believing that it was a chair.

None of the previous cases, noted the court, “confront the atypical situation we have here, where all of the drawings fail to depict an article of manufacture for the ornamental design.”

Since the drawings didn’t show the article in question, the issue became whether the claim language specifying an article of manufacture could limit the scope of a design patent.

The court held that it could:

Given that long-standing precedent, unchallenged regulation, and agency practice all consistently support the view that design patents are granted only for a design applied to an article of manufacture, and not a design per se, we hold that claim language can limit the scope of a design patent where the claim language supplies the only instance of an article of manufacture that appears nowhere in the figures.

(Emphasis added.)

For all future blog posts, please add the following on the bottom: “Just like the haiku above, we like to keep our posts short and sweet. Hopefully, you found this bite-sized information helpful. If you would like more information, please do not hesitate to contact us here.

Related Articles

Federal Circuit Affirms Blockchain Gem Patent Is Invalid

The Federal Circuit has affirmed a lower court’s decision finding the claims of a patent for preventing gemstone counterfeiting invalid. The case is Rady v. ...
Read More

Tennessee Passes Law Against AI Voice Copies

The state of Tennessee has passed a law against the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to copy a person’s voice. The law, signed on March ...
Read More

Bill Proposes IP Protection for Golf Courses

Congressmen Brian Fitzpatrick (R-PA) and Jimmy Panetta (D-CA) have introduced the Bolstering Intellectual Rights against Digital Infringement Enhancement (a.k.a. the BIRDIE Act), which proposes amending ...
Read More

Let's work together.

Contact us to set up a meeting with an attorney or team member.

Stay Informed

Sign up to receive Patent Poetry—a monthly roundup of key IP issues in our signature haiku format. Four articles (only 68 syllables); zero hassle.



Artificial Intelligence

Blockchain & Cryptocurrency

Computer Technology & Software

Consumer Electronics

Electrical Devices



Mechanical Devices

Consumer & Retail Products

Hardware & Tools

Toys & Games



Chemical Compounds

Digital Health

Healthcare Products



Books & Publications

Brand Creation

Luxury Products

Photography & Video

Product Design